Swat, The Charming Valley

Swat, generally known as the Switzerland of Asia, is one of the most beautiful valleys in the World.


swat valley beauty Pictures, Images and Photos

Swat, generally known as the Switzerland of Asia, is one of the most beautiful valleys in the World. 

Mr. Abdul Qayum Balala has attempted to embrace many elements pertaining to its geography, history, and culture in his book titled  “THE CHARMING SWAT”.
The Author is an intellectual belonging to the area, and his natural love for Swat reflects from each and every sentence. He knows Swat, its geography, history, politics, culture, and its 

entire national behavior, not only with the virtue of his qualification, but also with the dent of his experience. He holds Master Degree in Geography- the mother of Sciences, and is fully equipped with the profound knowledge on the subject. 

 Introduction

The charming Swat, a peaceful and fascinating tract in the lap of vegetative sky-high mountains, with eternal snow on their lofty crests, is an everlasting source of attraction for the visitors. Its beauty attracts tourists from all over the world to enjoy the soothing and serene sceneries, and the friendly behavior of its inhabitants. A visitor entered in Pakistan would never be contented without roaming about Swat.

The area of Swat is 4000 sq. miles with a population of about 1250000. Its height is not similar but varies from 2500 ft. to 7500 ft. above sea level.



Colonization

Due to its fertile soil and favorable climatic conditions, Swat has been the abode of various nations and subjected to historical events from time to time. Though this valley has an ancient history, but in the light of historical documents, its recorded history begins with Alexander The Great, who conquered Swat in 326 BC.

Alexander defeated Persia, thenceforth, he entered Swat via Kunar in 326 BC. Buddhism was in full bloom here. The Buddhist ruler fought the Greek invader, but was defeated. Having conquered Swat Alexander proceeded on along the Right Bank of Swat River. Reached Bandai in Nekpikheil, he crossed the river and camped near Manglor. He continued journey through the mountainous passes of Onra, and crossed Indus.

The well-known general of Alexander, Salukis, gave Swat to Chandragupta back in 304 BC. Another Buddhist king, Kanishka, shifted his capital from Peshawar to Swat so that he may be peaceful enough to worship his deities with full satisfaction. Then Raja Ram Batti and many other great personalities ruled Swat, and worshipped their gods with full peace and meditation in cloisters. Raja Gira was the last Buddhist ruler of Swat, who was defeated by Mahmood of Ghazni.


The Arrival of Afghans 


In eleventh century, Khwaja Ayyaz went on the Right Bank of Swat River and conquered the areas of Adenzee, Shamozee, Nekpikheil and so on. Mahmood went on the Left Bank of the river, when he reached Hudigram, there was the fort of Raja Gira, strongly built on a high peak. Mahmood commanded the conquest of this fort to an adroit general, Peer Khushal. The conquest of the fort was much more risky, but the order of the supreme commander was complied with.

Taking charge, the creative minded general besieged the fort for three days and cut off the underground connection of water link. On the forth day, he attacked the fort. The attack was a serious one and many soldiers were martyred, including Peer Khushal himself, but the fort was captured and since then Mahmood proceeded on and captured the whole Swat.

After conquering Swat, Mahmood settled two tribes of Afghan here, i.e. Swati and Dalazak, and went back. Both these tribes were living a happy life till they were driven away by the Yousafzai tribe of Pathans. 


The Entrance of Yousafzai

King of Kabul, Raja Alagh Baig, who was dethroned by his own tribe, called the help of Yousafzai to gain the imperial power of Afghanistan once again. All the chiefs,
and Sardars of the Yousafzai came and supported him strongly. They fought a battle against Tajack, and Alagh Baig became the King of Kabul again.

Since then, Yousafzai got an authoritative position in Kabul court and army. The Yousafzai tribe was settled there permanently. But as the king was a Tajack, his wife was Tajack, his friends, and his relatives, shortly all of the concerned people were Tajacks, so the men of his tribe confided him. They told the king that he would be afflicted by Yousafzai one day, because Yousafzai were not from his own race and all the key-posts were in their hands, therefore, they should be removed.

Since then Alagh Baig schemed that the Yousafzai should be attacked at night while they are in sound sleep. His army did so, but the force of the king was defeated badly.

When the elders of Yousafzai protested, the king cunningly expressed deep sorrows and assured them that some robbers might have taken the action.

Alagh Baig now made another plan. He invited all the chiefs of Yousafzai and attacked them while they set to eat. All of the heads were killed, but only two of them, Sardar Malak Ahmed and Sheikh Malee, escaped. Both of the leaders migrated to Peshawar valley along with their tribe-men.

Having been there for a period of time, they visited their Afghan Brothers, Swati and Dalazak, in Swat, to win their sympathy. But they, the Yousafzai, were soon attracted by the natural properties of this area. It should be mentioned here that the Yousafzai learned the art of betrayal from Tajack. So they compelled the originally settled Swati and Dalazak to quit Swat, who crossed Indus and took refuge in western Hazara district (Even now, some of the remnants of Swati and Dalazak tribes are found in the remote corners of Swat).

Sheikh Mali distributed all the land among the male members of families of his tribe. According to this scheme, these families would change their villages after each decade, and the land of the new village would be distributed among the male family members.

(Finally, the land was allotted permanently under the auspices of Bacha Sahib within a period of five years i.e. from 1924 to 1929, and the nomadic life of the residence of this area came to an end.).

Sheikh Malee introduced the units of land also. The smallest unit of land was Damray, while the largest unit was Rupee.

Having no ruling authority, Swat was subjected to lawlessness and disorder. Internecine feuds were the common feature of this tract. When they were tired of mutual bloodshed, they wanted to choose an impartial man to solve their problems and disputes. For this purpose they called Syed Akbar Shah, but after ruling for five years he died. The next personality convened was Syed Abdul Jabbar Shah. He was a good scholar, and statesman with majestic port. But a well reputed learned man, Sandakay Mullah soon blamed him as Qadyani (a person having belief in the prophet-hood of Mirza Ghulam Amad Qadyani), and so Abdul Jabbar left Swat.

In this connection, the other man was Miangul Abdul Wadood, the grandson of Mian Abdul Ghafoor (Sahib-e-Swat). The people entrusted Miangul Abdul Wadood with power in 1915 (But he was formally crowned in 1916 by the council (JARGA) of the chiefs of Swat in the grassy ground of Kabal). (He was the man of vigor and high determination. Formerly, he was the ruler of Swat valley only, but slowly and gradually, he expanded the border of Swat up to Gilgit. Later on he retired and his elder son, Miangul Abdul Haq Jehanzeb was crowned as the “Wali of Swat”. Ruling time of Jehanzeb is considered as the golden period in the history of Swat. All of his reforms i.e. schools, colleges, hospitals, roads, and other communication system were matchless. There was a complete peace and order in Swat. But having the foresight of the future politics and the reaction of the nation, he gave up the ruling power in 1969.
 



t is painful to recount the events of the recent past. The fascinating valley of swat, during the Ex-Wali regime, presented a  picture of the worldly paradise. The Wali of Swat, with 
unique sense of possession left no stone unturned in beautifying and developing each and every sector of Swat. He did his best, and had very lofty plans for the future. It had no match, and the visitors from all over the world had emotional attachment with the state.

After the Wali regime, the officers/officials with no sense of possession, did not bother about the development of Swat with the required zeal and fervor. It not only halted the march to wards prosperity, but also took us to a very dismal state of affairs.

The schools, roads, hospitals and the colleges of Swat were fully equipped with the latest trends. The Wali of Swat had plans to establish a university and professional colleges but the dreams remained unfulfilled due to the sudden turn of the table. His plans that soar high to the skies fell to the earth. The roads are no more useable. The schools and the hospitals have no proper system. The institutions have been destroyed, and every one devoid of high sense of national interest, is confined to the personal outlook and personal interests. This sad state of affairs if prolonged will further deteriorate the present infrastructure. 


Nomenclature:


This is an important point for us to know, why do we call ‘Swat’ to this tract, and from which source the name has been contrived.

In the ancient history, the word ‘Swat’ is not found. The early peoples called this soil with various names, but not by the present name, Swat. For example, some three thousand years ago, it was called Udhyana (Garden). In the writings of Chinese travelers, we can find ‘Soto’, while in the accounts of Greeks, the “Asoconoi” has been mentioned, but Mahmood Ghaznavi has called it ‘Qerat’. So for as the early names are concerned, Soto has much similarity to the present name.

The second base for its nomenclature is of Arabic origin. It is said that the word ‘Swat’ is the distorted shape of Aswad (black). As the hills and mountains of this land are covered with thick forests, which appear in sight as black, therefore, it was called Aswad. Slowly, it became ‘Swad’ but latter on the name changed completely and the present name ‘Swat’ was composed.

The final decision is lying in the fact that when Mahmood Ghaznavi conquered Swat, he wanted to settle some of his people to keep the control of the conquered area. So he settled two tribes the Swati and Dalazak here. As the Swati tribe was larger, the zone was called by the name of this tribe, Swat. 


Situation:

The valley of Swat is situated in the north of N.W.F.P, 35° North Latitude and 72° and 30° East Longitude, and is enclosed by the sky-high mountains.

Chitral and Gilgit are situated in the north, Dir in the west, and Mardan in the south, while Indus separates it from Hazara in the east.


Physical Features:
Swat can be divided into two physical regions:

  • Mountainous Ranges.
  • Plains.

Mountainous Ranges:

As mentioned above, Swat is lying in the lap of Mountainous Ranges, which are the offshoots of Hindukush, so the larger part of Swat is covered with high mountains and hills, the crests of which is hidden by everlasting snow. Though these gigantic Ranges run irregularly: some to the west while the others to the east, but the general direction is North-South. These ranges enclose small but very enchanting valleys. Eastern Ranges:
In Kohistan-e-Swat the chief knot of eastern ranges is Mankial. Its northern branches separate Kohistan-e-Swat from Abasin Kohistan. These ranges form a barrier between Gilgit and Swat, and between Chitral and Swat. The southern extension of Mankial ranges reaches proper Swat. There they join Shangla ranges. Shangla ranges separate proper Swat from Shangla Par area (Shangla Par district).
In Shangla district, there are Karora Ranges, which separate Puran from Kanra and Ghurband.
The continuation of Shangla ranges joins Dwasaray. On the one hand Dwasaray separates lower Swat from Puran, on the other, it set aside the Buner from Puran.
Now the general Direction of the ranges turns westward. Here it is called Elum. Elum Ranges is a big wall between the proper Swat and Buner. The Elum ranges at last join mountains of Malakand.

The Western Ranges:

 
Western ranges start from the mountain and hills of Gabral, Kohistan-e-Swat. It joins the hills of Kundal (Utror). There these ranges meet Daral Ranges. These ranges form a border with Dir district. They run west ward and are named according to the locality. For example Lalko ranges Manrai and Chaprai etc. at last they join the hills of Adenzee and Shamozee. Manrai ranges send off some off shoots southward. They the hills separate Arnoyay valley from the widest valley of Nekpikheil valley.
In Buner, there are many ranges of hills. Some of these hills run east west while others north south. For example Ambela Ranges form a border between Sodam Rustam (Mardan) and Kawga. Again, there are some ranges, which separates the surrounding areas of Kawga from Chinglai. The pass through these ranges is known as "Doormai Kandaw". There come other ranges. These are the hills of Dambara. So it is hard to count the actual number of the hills and ranges, but this is a fact that the major portion of Buner district is covered with hills. Though, these hills are not as high as hills of Kohistan-e-Swat, yet they enclose many small charming valleys and are more populated.
In the armpits of these mountains and hills there are small beautiful valleys, which are praiseworthy, these are limited to the watercourses of local rivers. The hills or mountains no doubt, enclose these valleys, but the local people have connected them by narrow path through high passes.
These mountain ranges have some high peaks, which are capped with everlasting snow. In the north of Mankial Ranges, Falakseir is a well-known peak with a height of 19415 ft above the sea level. Chokail is another sky-high peak in the same ranges, which lies to the south of Falakseir. The height of this peak is 20528 ft. The third one is Mount Mankial in the vicinity of Chokail. This mount is 18338 ft high above sea level.

An explorer submerged in the snow while he tried to conquer them. However, a Japanese adventurer conquered mount Mankial in 1975.
In these high ranges there are lakes, known as Dand. In Ushu the famous lake is Mahodand (the lake of the fish).
In the eastern ranges, the other famous Dand is Bashigram Dand. Though, there are many Dands but Bashigram Dand is very charming. It seems that this Dand have been made by some gigantic creatures, and all the big blocks have been prepared very carefully by the sculptor and have been placed skillfully. The natural scene of this Dand is so charming that the ex-ruler of Swat has visited it thrice. This Dand is one of the sources of Bashigram River.
The western ranges, Daral Ranges, have also three big Dands. Two of them lie in the area of Swat, while the third one is in the boundary of DIR.
The Dand of Kundal is the largest of all the Dands of these ranges. It is rather a tiny sea surrounded by the high peaks with murmuring rills. In the vicinity of this biggest Dand there are two small Dands, one is called Khaperai Dand (fairy Dand) and the next is the Dand of Speen Khwar. This Dand is so charming that the ex-president of Pakistan, Farooq Ahmad Khan Laghari came here by helicopter to enjoy the enchanting scene of this Dand. Seidgai Dand is second in size, but it lies out of the borders (watershed) of Swat. It is situated at the terminal of Wosheray Dara, Dir. It is mentioned here, because, the pastures of this area are hired by shepherds of Swat. The Dand of Daral is third in size, which is the smallest one among the big Dands.
These Dands feed rivers. For example, Daral Dand feeds Daral River, which joins Swat River in Bahrain.
These ranges have good pastures, generally, the areas in the vicinity of a Dand is used as a pasture. These pastures are very charming. The land surface is covered with green grass. The grazing cattle, goats, sheep, cows, horses and even the buffaloes on the slopes seem very charming.
Some of the famous pastures are Mair, Tolay, Jamdarai, Seidgai, Tharkana, Kar Banda, Chamber, Jaba, Kundal, Batal, Lado Banda, Loi Pandghalay etc.
These pastures are lying in the knot of Daral. Moreover, each Spinsar (denude mount) has pastures. For example, Bashigram Pasture, and the pasture of Ajmair are at such a height that the rock is denuded, and have no soil.
 

The Plain:

The true plain is not found here, yet the local people call to some areas Plain Surfaces. These so-called plain surfaces may be divided under the following headings:

  • The Valley of Swat. 
  • The Plains of Buner 
The Valley of Swat:
Actually the valley of Swat starts from the foothill of Malakand but we are concerned with portion from Landakay to Gabral (Gulabad), the area within the administrative boundaries of Swat.
The length of the valley from Landakay to Gabral is 91 miles. Two narrow strips of plains run along the banks of Swat River from Landakay to Madyan. Beyond Madyan in Kohistan-e-Swat, the plan is too little to be mentioned. So for as the width concerns, it is not similar, it varies from place to place. We can say that the average width is 5 miles. The widest portion of the valley is between Barikot and Khwazakheila. The widest view point and the charming sight where a major portion of the valley is seen is at Gulibagh on main road, which leads to Madyan.
There are some subsidiary valleys, which help to increase the width of the main valley. These subsidiary valleys are called "Daras". A Dara a narrow passage between mountains, and sometimes, the upper course of a river is also called Dara. If we imagine the main valley as a stem of a tree the subsidiary valleys form its branches.
Swat River and its tributaries drain Swat. There fore, the whole valley is the outcome of running water. This flowing water cuts the upper courses deeply, and flows the load of washed away materials. As the gradient is greater in the upper course so the erosion is on large scale, particularly in the summer rains, when all the rivers are in flood. The big boulders and stones are rolled, which causes more destruction in the upper courses. When the loaded water reaches to the areas of low gradient, the heavier materials are deposited. The deposition takes place according to the slope, generally, we observe, that the upper course is made up of big boulders, the middle course is of relatively small stones, pebbles, and debris, while the lower course is made of fine clay. Anyhow, the whole plain of Swat valley is strewn by the running water, and is made up of fine alluvial soil.

The Plains of Bunair:

 
Buner has also an irregular plain surface but there are not such active perennial rivers as in the valley of Swat. Only Barandu is the river, which has a little water flowing through the whole year. Many of the rivers of Buner are inundation rivers. When the rain stops, there is no sign of water in the watercourses. It should be kept in mind that there are two Buners: Upper Buner and Lower Buner (Chamla). Barandu and its tributaries, the Jowar River and Kohqand River, drain the upper Buner. Barandu joins the Khwar (a big watercourse) of Chagharzee. (In Chagharzee, There are three Kwars: one Khwar flows from Bar Shamnal, next from Gulbandai, and the third is the Khwar of Pandeer.)
The lower Buner, Chamla, starts from Ambela Kandaw and reaches to Swabi.
We can find plain areas in Upper Buner like Jowar, Anghapur, and Swarai up to Budal, and in Lower Buner or Chamla: Chinglai and Khadukheil. The area of Kawga, Nawagai, and Sora may be grouped as plain to some extent.
As many of the rivers in Buner are inundation or rainy rivers, and their upper courses are short, therefore, the deposition of clay is started just at the foot of the hills. This is because the whole surface of Buner Plain is made of clayey materials. The thickness of the layer of clay is greater here. 



Climate:

Swat is lying in the Temperate Zone in the northern mountainous ranges of the Indo-Pak Sub–Continent, therefore, here weather is affected by all the climatic factors “latitude, altitude and rain bearing winds” (the cyclone and monsoon winds).

In summer, Swat comes under the influence of the monsoon, while in winter, it is affected by the Cyclonic Current from the Mediterranean Sea. 


Temperature:

So for the temperature is concerned, the height of Swat varies from 2500 ft to 7500 ft, therefore, this is colder zone. Due to the absence of meteorological department, we cannot quote the actual recorded data; anyhow, January is the coldest month of the year. The temperature, generally, remains between 40°F and 45°F (2°C to -2°C). The water-freezing season is from the last week of December to the end of February. In mountainous areas it takes more than three months.

The hottest month is July, in which the temperature rises to more than 90 °F (32°C) in the plains, but in mountainous areas, it is lower. In Buner, however, we find a little bit extremity of weather.

Rain Fall:

There are three rain-bearing seasons:
1. Winter Rains  2. Spring Rain  3. Summer Rains


Winter Rains:

These rains start in December and last to the end of February. When the rainfall starts once, it remains continuous to one or two weeks. This continuous rainfall is called Jarai. The rain of this season is usually, with slow fall and small drops. In the plain, the snowfall takes place from 15th January to the end of February. But in mountainous areas, the snow period is from the beginning of December to the end of March. (In November, the snow also falls on mountains, but melts soon.)


Spring Rains:

The rains from March to May are regarded as the spring rains. In this season, the rainfall occurs in shower with thunder and lightening, and the drops are bigger. The lengthened period of the continuation of the spring rains is destructive for the muddy homes of the poor villagers. 

Summer Rains:

Usually, there is a gap of one dry month, June, between the rains of spring and summer. The summer rains begin in July, and end in September. These rains are not so continuous. They are in intermittent position. Sometimes the rainfall takes place suddenly with hailstones, which results in the damages to property and lives. The rain of this season falls with shower and lightning. The annual rainfall is about 50 inch.

The general effects of the weather condition are cold winter and warm summer, and the coldest winter in mountainous areas.


Natural Vegetation:

The amount of rainfall and temperature is enough for the growth of vegetation. The naturally growing plants can be grouped into two types because there is difference of conditions between the plain and mountains.

The Vegetation of Plains:

In the lowland of Swat, the temperature is comparatively high, so the plants and trees are of broad leaves deciduous type. Poplar, Bakyan and Willow are the common non-fruit trees. The mulberry, pear, apricot, plum, damson, walnut, apple, fig, grapes, orange, jujube are fruit trees, and grow everywhere. Acacia and olive are also found in gregarious positions. The local names of some of plants and shrubs are Kharawa, Manrogaya, Kwarae, Manro, Soorazghi, Ghorashki, Khonawli, etc. The plants and shrubs cover the slopes of the hills and the foothill areas.


The Vegetation of Mountains:

Beyond the height of 4500 ft, there are vast amounts of forests of coniferous trees that consist of Pines, Dewdar, Cedar, Byar etc. Generally, each of the variety forms its own belt. Mostly, the lower belt is of pine. The next to come is Dewdar and Byar. The belts of these two varieties reach to the denuded mounts (Spincers). The pine and spruce are found even in Buner, where the height is not much greater. But Dewdar, and Byar, grow at sufficient height and are found at Kohistan. Among the shrub, Borajae, Bang-e-Dewana, Ghanamrangae and Shangla are grown on the slopes of the hills and mountains. Shepherds, nomads (the local name of them is Ajar) are migrating to the hills along with their flocks, where the growth of the grass is greater. These areas are considered as permanent pastures. Caraway seeds and mushrooms are also found in the same areas when snow melts away.

Forests:

The vegetation of Swat has a great value, particularly, the forests and grass. Dewdar and Byar grow in vast amount in the upper belt of forests. Wood taken from them is durable and is not rotten easily even in the water, therefore, they are used in underwater constructions and buildings. Pine is another useful wood for timber, beams, rafts, and furniture. Generally, furniture is made of Walnut, Bakayan and Poplar.
Due to these forests, woodcutting is a common profession for the local people. They also get a meager amount as royalty from the government.
The shrub and grass provides good pastures for the cattle. Gujars and Ajars drive buffalo, cows, sheep and goats to these pastures, in summer season. The local people call these pastures Banday.
Formerly, the nomad were paying a great amount of money to the Khans, who considered themselves as the "Masters" of both the plains and the hills, but now, the Ajars and Gujars ceased many of these pastures and they do not give anything as lease. The Khans did not satisfy only with the money paid to them, so the poor Ajars and Gujars also had to pay butter oil, ghee, fuels, and wool.
Some people collect mushrooms in these forests, and sell them with high prices. Moreover, resin is also obtained from the trees of pine.
The final and greater importance of all these vegetation is to protect soil erosion.
 
 Agriculture:

Human life is impossible without agriculture; industrially advanced areas depend on it indirectly while the rural settlement is directly benefited with this profession. So far as Swat concerns, about 99% of the population are cultivators. With the exception of a few, all the landowners have small tracks of land. These holdings are so small that the holders are not only landlords but they are peasants too.
The ever increasing demands for daily life compels the poor peasants to get more and more yields of the tiny tracts of soil. So they use various techniques and chemical fertilizers with the addition of cattle dung in large scale. The barren soils are made arable, the narrow farms where the plough cannot be used, are tilted by mattocks, the week soils are deprived of yearly rest, one cropped areas converted into two crop areas, and single crop farms changed into orchards.
In the hilly areas, huge walls have been constructed to make farms on the slopes. The advantage of these walls is to protect the fertility of the soil and hinder erosion. In spite of this hard work, the poor peasants can not get enough yields to suffice for their livelihood. Therefore some of the members of the family migrate to large cities for services to earn much money to meet their needs.
Though Swat is totally an agricultural zone, yet it's per acre out put is low. Some of The detrimental factors for the high yield are the following:
Fragmentation:
The individual holdings have been subdivided and a single owner has parts of his holdings in various places of the village. For example, a holder of an acre land has parts of that one-acre in different places, therefore, the farmers cannot serve them properly.

Irregular Irrigation:
The next item responsible for low production is irregular irrigation system. Vast areas in Swat solely depend upon rainfalls. The peasants sow the seeds in the hope of rain, but when, unfortunately, the rain misses time, the seeds are either rotten in soil or picked up by birds, ants, and other insects. If it rains, sometimes, the rainy streams become so overflowed that the surplus water gushes in the newly sown or newly grown fields and a layer of debris is deposited over them. So both the seeds and the newly germinated plants are spoiled out.

The Lake of Manure:
The cattle dung was used as fertilizer some years ago. Now the position has changed. Dung is no more used as manure but rather as fuel. It has also affected the production, the farmers try to get the best type of fertilizers but they are not given it easily by the government. Therefore, many of the weak farms are given seasonal or yearly rest to obtain the energy from the natural sources. Moreover, the prices of fertilizers are so high that the farmers are about to give up their use.

The Claims of Khans:
The poor and hard working peasants want to make the barren soil on the slopes of the hills clean and arable. But the Khans and other lords prevent them to do so because they claim that the hills and mountains of Swat are their belongings.

The final factor responsible for the low agricultural production is limited to the proper valley of Swat only. As the Swat river is not channelized so its unchecked flow causes to wash away vast cultivated areas every year and deprives the poor peasants from their land tracts.
The ex-Wali was to channelize the water of this river, but unfortunately his dream was not realised and Swat absorbed in Pakistan.

Crops Seasons:
 
There are two crops growing seasons:
1. Spring Harvest   2. Autumnal Harvest


Spring Harvest:

This harvest is called Rabee in other parts of Pakistan, but its name in Swat is "Har". It starts from September-October, and lasts till May and June. The chief crops of this season are wheat, barley, mustard, and lentil.


Wheat:
Wheat is the staple food all over the region. It is grown in the whole district. Only in a few mountainous areas where the temperature is sufficiently low and snowfall is greater, wheat cannot grow. Because the required heat to ripe the crop is not available.

Moreover, soil of Swat is composed of the rotten leaves of trees and shrubs with the mixture of other suitable organs, so this is very productive and favors the growth of wheat.

Distribution of Wheat:
Wheat is grown in the valley of Swat and Buner. In Kanra and Ghurband it is little, and in Kohistan, the cultivation of this crop is negligible.
The cultivation of wheat is common in Swat but due to the rough methods of cultivation, the per acre yield is very low.

Varieties:
In early days, there were two varieties of wheat, Shargha and Kundyan. Shargha was of thorny ears while Kundyan had no thorns. The stalks of Shargha were smaller than Kundyan. The breads of these were very delicious, and they also produced more husks for cattle, but the yield was little.
As the output of the above mentioned varieties was low, these were replaced by "Maxipak". This variety was good for output but, generally, the farmers suffered from shortage of husks, therefore, the peasants were not satisfied with this variety.
Presently, agriculture department has introduced many new varieties for example Pirsabak-90-85, Inqilab, Pasban, etc.

Barley:
Barley was a staple food grain in Swat some 30 years ago among the poor peasants. The ladies were so expert in backing the breads of barley that it was preferred to wheat. But the procedure was very difficult. Secondly, barley was also cleaned from chaff and was cooked as rice in cooking pot. It was called Batey. At morning Batey was mixed with buttermilk and was used for breakfast. This mixture was called Ogra (Ogra is also made of rice).

Oil Seed:
Among the oilseeds mustard is a common one. It has a couple of advantages: firstly, it produces the seeds for oil, secondly it makes the soil fertile. The farmers sow it to prepare the fields to grow more wheat for the next year. The mustard is sown in the rainy soil. it is sown, particularly, in Nekpikheil, Shamozee and Shamizee. In the early spring, in the end of February, the green surface marked with golden strips excites the hearts, and presents the loveliest scene ever present on the earth for the lover of nature. The yield is low. The farmers sow this crop for their personal use.
Other crops of this season are lentils and peas. They are produced for the personal use of the farmers.


Autumnal Harvest:

This harvest is known as "Kharif Crops", but in Swat, it is known as "Manay". The crops of this season are sown in June-July, and harvested in September-October. The chief crops of this season are maize, rice and jute.


Maize:
Maize is a staple food in the Swat and is grown wherever the agricultural activities are carried on. Because the favorable climatic and soil condition are available. The maize is grown in higher places also, where wheat cannot thrive best. The distribution of its growth depends upon the variety of the corn and supply of water. Some of the varieties require much water while other do not.
The old varieties of maize were:

1. Lapsatee. 2. Ghundyan. 3. Woorakyan.


Rice:
Rice is another food crop of autumnal harvest. The required geographical environment is available in Swat. The abundant supply of water, temperature, and soil condition are favorable for the growth of paddy.

Varieties:
About 15 years ago there were three varieties: Shooga, Garra, and Lawangai. They were very delicious in taste, (especially, Lawangai had a very fantastic smell also, and the grains were very thin). The grains of Shooga and Garra were fat, and there were some reddish and greenish grains too. These kinds of rice changed because they could subjected to diseases easily. The alternates of these are Begamai, Sela, and Shpetamai. Now, Begamai has got a good position among the rice varieties.

Distribution:
Rice is grown in the valleys of Swat River, and its tributaries. In Buner, the Valley of Barandu grows rice. It is also grown in Makhuzee, Puran, in some parts of Ghurband, but the production is satisfactory only in the proper valley of Swat River. The other areas produce rice on such a low scale that it cannot satisfy the local need.
The other productions of this harvest are roping-hemp and beans.


Pulses and Vegetables:
Generally a rural population tries to produce the items of daily use themselves. Similarly, the peasants of Swat grow various kinds of pulses, and vegetables. Some of them are tomato, potato, turnip, pumpkin, okra, radish, carrot, chili, spinach, cauliflower, cabbage, garlic, onion and mint etc. A variety of vegetables produced in hilly areas is known as Samchal, Shella and Kwanjay. Among the pulses lentils and peas are common.

Cash Crops:

The surplus amount of the food grains come first in this respect. However, the particular crops are tobacco, hemp, and sunflower.

Tomatoes and potatoes are essential element in the commercial field of Swat: Both of the items were growing for the personal use of the farmers about ten years ago. In 1963, there were a few small tracts, which were tilted for potatoes in Utror, Kohistan-e-Swat. Now, whole of Kohistan-e-Swat (from Bahrain to Gulabad, and Ushu,) beyond the glacier of Matiltan, produces heavy output of potatoes. The Government preserves them for seed purposes. The quality of the potatoes is the best, the yield is very high, and the size is very large.

Like potatoes, tomatoes have also made progress in a few years. It is grown in the valleys of Swat River and its tributaries. Vast areas have been made up for the gardens of tomatoes. This crop thrives best in the valleys, and produces an ideal yield. However when the summer rains are in excess, the plants and flowers are damaged, and the yield decreases considerably. Both, potatoes and tomatoes, are sold directly in the markets of Peshawar, Rawalpindi, and Lahore. Cultivation of potatoes on large scale is limited to Kohistan-e-Swat, while tomatoes are grown in the proper valley of Swat. In Buner, Chagharzee, and in Shangla Par, both crops are produced but little.

Onions:
The onion is planted in Swat Valley (from Landakay to Madyan). The production not only suffices the local needs, but is transported to other parts of the country also.

Pumpkin:
This vegetable is produced on larger scale in Shangla Par and in the hilly areas of Swat, and is transported to other parts.

Sugar Cane:
The geographical conditions are available for sugarcane, and it thrived successfully in Swat. Some years ago, large tracts had been brought under the cultivation of this crop, but the preparation of Gur (dried molasses), was not profitable. Therefore, the farmers gave up its cultivation. However, in Shamozee (lower Swat), and in Gadezee (Upper Buner), sugarcane is grown, gins have been installed for crushing it in these areas, and Gur is prepared. The Gur of Shamozee is very famous, and is sold like hot cakes. In Buner, it is prepared only for the personal use of the farmers, but in Shamozee, it is produced on commercial bases.

Tobacco:
Tobacco is planted in lower Buner and in some location of Western Chagharzee for Naswar (, a mixture of tobacco powder and ash or lime) only, and its cultivation on commercial scale is rare.

Melons and Water Melons:
Melons are also cultivated in Swat, but they are not very delicious. The watermelons are good here, but its gardening is rare.


Sugar Beet:
This commodity came very fresh to the group of cash crops in Swat. This is experienced in Shamizee. The expectation for the increase of this crop is greater.


Horticulture:

Regarding fruits, Swat is a lucky district. It grows various kinds of fruits. Generally, citrus fruits are grown here. Some years ago, when the artificial methods of fruit plantation were unfamiliar, the naturally grown fruits were abundant. But the trees of the fruits were scattered and were not in gregarious position. Since the inhabitants of the district took interest in this aspect of agriculture, vast tracts of soil were brought under the plantation of fruit trees. The farmers got skilled in horticulture, and they knew how to graft various trees. So, slowly and gradually, orchards appeared in the field of agriculture.
Many of the wild fruit trees advanced artificially, and became more productive. Yet some of them: Walnut, Jujube, Fig, etc. are totally neglected. In Chagharzee, Puran, and Makhuzee, a variety of figs, known as "Wormal" (a fruit equal in size of an apple), is grown. This fruit is unfamiliar in the markets of Swat.
The horticulture started first in Matta Sub-division (Upper Swat) on commercial scale, therefore, this zone is very advanced now. The main item of the orchards is apple, though other fruits like damson, grapes, pears, loquat, apricots, and prune etc. are also planted, but they are on small scales. These orchards earn more money for the owners.
Some of the famous orchards in Upper Swat are at Kooz Sherpalam, Bar Sherpalam, Matta, Jora, Shanguatai, Arkot, Biakan, and Ronyal. There are large and vast gardens in Jankikhel. The eastern bank of Swat River is also covered with gardens.
Moreover, there are many tracts, which are not counted as orchards, because they are smaller in size and area. Most of the gardens are freshly planted.
Seeing this high income, many farmers changed their cropped areas into orchards, and now there is a strong competition of this profession, so strong that the yield of food crops decreased to formidable extent.
In Babozee Sub-division, the orchards are different to those of Matta. The orchards are multi fruit gardens here. Orange, loquat, pear, damson, peach, apricot etc. have been planted here, but the chief item of these orchards is orange. The largest fruit gardens are in Barikot.
In Shangla Par, the walnut, mulberry, pears, and grapes grow well, but due to the unsuitable transport system, attention has not been given to horticulture.
Buner does not take much interest in horticulture, because supply of water is not permanent here to meet the needs of gardens. The horticulture is increasing with the introduction of tube-wells.
In Kohistan-e-Swat, Utror is the chief producer of apples.


Live Stock:

Animal rearing is an integral part of agriculture, as the bulls plough the fields, and buffaloes, cows, and goats give milk, curd, buttermilk, ghee, and meat. The sheep provide wool for blankets. Moreover, the dung of these animals is used as manure, and fuels. The skins are used for shoes making purposes (Some people also make cards of it for the texture of cots).
In Swat, the live stock may be grouped into two types: 

  • Rural Cattle 
  • Pastoral Cattle
Rural Cattles:

The rural cattle include those quadrupeds that are being kept by the peasants for their personal use. Bulls, buffaloes, and cows are the common among them. The sheep and goats are reared too, but not with much interest. The cattle are fed husks, grass, and Shawtal (a kind of green grass). In winter, when there is not green grass, the dry grass, the husks, paddy, and dry plants of maize are fed to them.

Pastoral Cattles:


The pastoral cattle are largely consisting of goats and sheep. No doubt, the buffaloes and cows also exist in this type, but little. Generally, the cattle are reared by the nomads. Regarding a small difference in profession, the nomadic people are of two types: 
  • Gujar (Cow-herd)
  • Ajar (Shepherds)

Gujar (Bandar):
Gujars are called those nomads who keep buffaloes and cows. As buffaloes and cows are heavy animals, so they cannot be driven easily to the pastures ("Bandas"). So, they settled in the suitable environment, and started peasantry life with their old profession of rearing the cattle of big animals. However, the Gugers who keep continued the seasonal migration are called Bandars.

Ajar:
Ajars are those nomads who keep sheep, and goats. A poor Ajar has cattle more than five hundred sheep and goats.
In summer, May and June, when the spring is in full bloom at the pastures, the atmosphere is fragrant, and environment is peaceful, each family of Ajar migrate to their pasture known as "Banda". They stay there with a happiest life, and graze their cattle with much interest. In spite of the hard transportation of foodstuff to these pastures, the Ajars become very polite and hospitable here.
After staying there for about four months, they commence again their journey downwards, and drive their streaming flocks to the plain areas in September-October. They seek shelter from the severity of harsh weather conditions by migrating to comparatively warmer situations, where they can graze their flock easily. So, many of them go to Buner.
The source of the income of Ajars is their cattle. They sell wool, hairs of goats, butter oil, hides, and the sheep, and goats, and earn their livelihood.

The Beast of Burden:

The beasts of burden kept in Swat are mules, donkeys, and ponies. Some of the farmers keep only donkeys for their own needs.
So far as the live stock concerns, it decreases gradually. This is due to the fact that the grazing land is shrinking. In the early times, the farmers were giving either yearly or seasonally rest to the fields. But now, the fallow lands are unavailable. This shortage of open fields caused the decrease of rural cattle.


Poultry:

In Swat, every farmer has enough hens to meet his own needs. So for as the commerce is concerned, much attention has been given to this profession. Now there are many poultry farms: About each large village have at least one poultry form. Chickens, particularly capon, are available everywhere in abundance.

Wild Life:

In early days when the shrubs and bushes covered slopes and foothill areas, the rabbits, porcupine, fox, jackal, wolf, pigs, and hyenas were in large number. Now the need for fuels decreased the scrubs and trees, so these animals have decreased considerably.
In the forests, lions, tigers, bears, and monkeys are found.
Among the birds: hawks, eagles, falcons are found in the high mountains, while pheasants, partridges, hoopoes, larks, sparrows, quails, doves, swallows, starlings, nightingales, crows, kites, vultures, owls, bates are the common birds.


Bees:

The bees were kept in Swat commonly, and the pure honey of was famous all over the country. But now the moveable beehives have affected the Swat locally reared bees greatly. Now, the local good honey is found in remote areas only, while the honey of moveable hives is available everywhere in low prices. 

Fisheries:

There is a large fishery in Madyan. In this fishery the trout fish are being reared. In Kohistan-e-Swat there are some private fisheries too.
In Buner the fish were being reared in Barandu, Dagar.
Moreover the Swat River serves as a permanent fishery throughout the year while the tributaries of it are used for fishing only in spring season.


Mineral Resources:

Mines' production plays an important role in the economy of a country, particularly in the regions where they exist, because, the local people get the opportunities to labor in, and earn their livelihood. But the Swati mines have no importance for the local people in this respect. It is necessary, however, to mention what they are, and where do they exist.
Swat is rich in mineral wealth, but the discovered commodities are a few. Among them, the china clay stands first; others are marble stone, and emerald. 


China Clay:

The china clay exists at “Kathyar” in Nekpikheil (on the road that leads to Shahderai at a distance of 15 miles from Mingora). This is the largest mine, having the finest quality, of China clay in Pakistan. The clay is mined here, and is transported to Shaidu in Nawshehra (which is at a distance of around 100 miles from Swat). It is not so advantageous for the local people, because they have no opportunity to work in the complex.

Soap Clay:


The mine of soap clay has been discovered recently between Alpurai and Kanra on the side of Gilgit Road (Shahrah-e-Resham). It is spread in a vast area. 
Marbles:

The marbles are dug near Charbagh, Murghuzar, and Barikot in the proper valley of Swat, and in Buner, it is mined in Thor Warsak, Bampokha, and Sawawai.
Moreover, there is a great expectation of iron ores, which will be discovered in near future.

Emerald:

The finest quality of emerald is produced in Swat. Its Color and transparency is unique. It is the best in world. It is exported to the international markets: There is an export potential of 500 million dollars in this sector, provided it is excavated and cut as per international standards.
Before the absorption of Swat in Pakistan, the emeralds of Swat were better in quality, and greater in quantity. But since then it is said that the quantity of production is little, and the quality devalued. 


Industries:

The installation of industries depends upon the following items:
  • The production of raw materials 
  • The availability of cheap labor 
  • The means of communication 
  • The favor ability of climatic conditions 
  • The law and order situation 
In Swat, all the former four elements are available in abundance, but unfortunately, the fifth item is totally absent, and Swat is intensely poor in political point of view. Therefore, we cannot find a single factory or mill installed by the government.
A program for the installation of a "Match Factory" was made. The selected site for the factory was Manglor, but that program was canceled, and the factory shifted to somewhere else. Now the whole timber are smuggled out of the borders of Swat. The hides and skins are sent as raw materials to the tanneries outside Swat.
China clay is transported to Shaidu Complex, a site 100 miles away from the border of Swat and 150 miles from the source. Only a refinery has been built in the vicinity of the mine.
As the climatic conditions favor the silk factories, so, the Late Wali of Swat (may his soul be in peace) had permitted everyone to install tax-free silk factories, so that the local residents may earn their livelihood. Since then, the competition started, and in a span of time, the industrial area of Rahimabad, and Amankoat came into existence. The largest silk weaving mills planted in Hudigram. The small factories were set up in Mingora, Naway Kalay, Kabal and Bara Bandai. The number reached to more than 100.
Unfortunately, Swat merged in Pakistan in 1969, and all the factories affected seriously, with the freshly arrived politics. The number of factories decreased to a few and the production dropped to zero. Now, many of the buildings are either evacuated halls without looms, or they have looms but no raw materials. Presently, the best democratic governments imposed cumbersome taxes, so the industrialists cannot run the factories, and hordes of labors became jobless.


Handicrafts:

The handicrafts of Swat are very famous. When a tourist visits Swat, he accumulates bundles of these articles as gifts for his friends. All of the crafts prepared here are interesting, especially, the following are very charming.

Woolen Blankets:

These blankets are known as "Sharai". They are prepared of wool obtained from the local sheep. The weight of a medium size blanket is four kilos. This is the best source of defense from the severity of winter. It is woven in Dewlai, Kala Kalay, Salampur, Puran, and Ghurband. These villages prepare the items on commercial scale.

Shawl:

Shawl is a younger brother of Sharai, as it is also a woolen sheet, but light in weight. Sometimes, cotton is also mixed in its texture. It is beautifully fringed, and is commonly used by ladies. The tourists like it too much. Shawls are prepared in Salampur and Dewlai "Jolabad" on commercial bases.

Rugs: 

The next important thing, made of local fleece with laborious work, is rug. This is prepared in the villages by pressing wool with the help of water spray. After preparation, it is beautified with the usage of various colors. Rugs are the traditional carpets of shepherds, but now are used everywhere.

Embroidery:

The embroidery of Swat is very famous, and is liked everywhere in Pakistan, as well as by the out-comers. This art is an indoor hobby of the ladies in Swat. Particularly in Nekpikheil, this is so common that very younger girls might also be seen having needlework in their hands. There are three types of embroidery: 
  • Silken thread work 
  • Cotton thread work 
  • Golden lace work 
The small girls can do the cotton thread, and golden lace work easily, but there is difficulty in silk thread work. In this work the threads of warp and woof of the cloth are counted, and with the help of calculation the work is carried on. As the young girls have no such maturity of mind, they cannot do this work. So for as the golden lace work is concerned, this is a twofold work; one type of the work is done with needle, while the other is done with owl. The needlework is carried on all over the Swat, especially in Nekpikheil, and Charbagh, but the owl embroidery is at Bara Bandai, and Koza Bandai (Nekpikheil).
Among the prepared articles, sheets for bed covering, tablecloths, pillows, shirts, tea-cozy, and caps are famous. Knitting is the next hobby of the small girls of the villages.
Charbagh is famous for the art of caps. 


Panrae or Panhey:


Panrey or Panrhey is the old fashion of shoes, still used by the old persons in Swat. They are made in Swat with the simply tanned leather. The cobblers have great skill in the formation of ladies shoes with golden lace work. Similarly, the sandals with golden lace work are also made. The cobblers of Shahderai had great skill in this field. It is now archaic.

Shkor:


A Shkor is a pot in which chapatis (plate bread used in India and Pakistan) are kept. The ordinary Shkors are prepared everywhere in Swat, but a special design is made in Puran and Chagharzee (These Shkors are high-based pots made of wheat stalks with laborious art, not easily available in bazaar).
Furniture:

Furniture of various styles is made in the district. The cots, tables, chairs, dressing tables, cradles of more advanced types, etc. are furnished in Mingora, and in nearly all large villages.  
 Trade:

Regarding trade, Swat is the importer of every thing, while she exports a few surplus elements. The materials for external trade are two types:

Edible Materials:

The surplus amount of food grains stands first in the edible materials. The others are potatoes, tomatoes, pumpkins, garlic, and onion etc. Among the vegetables the largest elements of external trade are potatoes, turnip, and tomatoes. The other elements are exported on small scale.
The fruits of various kinds including apples, oranges, apricots, damsons, pears, jujubes, and walnuts are also exported to nearly all big cities of Pakistan.
Among the edible items, there are three other elements which are more precious than the above mentioned items. They are honey, indigenous butter oil, and mushroom. Honey and mushroom have much importance in the external trade. The physicians in the big cities of Pakistan want the honey. Hamdard Dawakhana demands more honey than any other.
Mushrooms are the most precious fungicides, which are exported to many countries of the world. Its soup and taste is unique. Its price round about 3500 rupees per kg in the local market, and a 100$ in the international markets. Presently the annual export of mushroom from Swat is 70 million rupees.

The Non Edible Materials:

The non-edible materials are furs, hides, and skins. The handicrafts are also exported for business. It consists of woolen blankets, shawls, the caps, and rugs. The raw wool and hair of goats are also going beyond Landakay, the ex-border of Swat. The external people like all of the silken-thread-work, cotton-thread-work, and golden-lace work too much. They buy a great number of articles, prepared in Swat, and take it outside of the district. Some woolen articles are also made for decoration, and sent out of the border.


Population:

The population of Swat is round about 1,250,000.


Distribution of Population:

The distribution of population depends upon relief, climate vegetation, products, and industries. The people deserts the uneven surface composed of poor soil with severe climatic conditions, and seeks abode somewhere else in the area where the facilities for decent life are available. Therefore, in the early days, the exceeding number of population of mountainous areas were coming to the villages of the valley, and worked as peasants, or as helpers of the landlords. But now, the industrial and commercial centers avail them good opportunities for lucrative jobs, and fruitful labor work. So instead of the villages, the influx of the population is toward the cities. Thus Mingora is the thickly populated area in the whole Swat. The villages of the valley have thicker population as compared to the mountainous areas.

Races:

The population of Swat consists of the following main races: Mian, Mula, Swati Dalazak, Pukhtoon, Kohistani, and Gujar. Each of them has their own genealogy, and background.

Mian (Plural Miangan):
Mian means reverend, so, all the Miangan are respected for their pious origin, forefathers, but they are not descended from one progenitor. They have come from different origins, hence they are known with various names i.e. Sayed, Papinee, Akhund Kheil, and Madey Kheil etc.
Among them, Sayeds are very respected, and their genealogy is linked to the Holy Prophet (Peace be Upon him). Sayed Qambar Ali Shah, known as Peer Baba, whose tomb is in Buner which is attended by thousands of people each year, is their nearer forefather.


Mula (plural Mulan):

 
A Mula is a religious scholar. The whole family of a Mula is also named after him. Like Miangan, Mulan are also reverend sect. Again, like Miangan, they are not from one source. There are various groups in them like Mula, Sahibzada, Sheikh, and Akhunzada etc.
Muslim conquerors also brought Mulans with them, to preach Islam in the newly occupied regions. Later on these Mulans were settled permanently in these areas.
Many other races like Pukhtoon, Mian, Gujar etc. also turned as Mulan, and so, their origin was concealed by the thick cover of knowledge and wisdom.

Both Mulan, and Miangan, are known as "Stanadar" Stana means residence, and Dar means holder. Thus, Stanadar means the permanent Master of Abode. They were called so, because in the case of departure, or attack, other people would deposit their precious materials in the houses of Stanadar (Miangan and Mulan), as the invaders would not touch them. The assailants also respected Stanadar, and never touched, or harmed the things that were entrusted to Stanadars. Secondly, before 1924(the year of permanent allotment), other people would change their villages at the end of each decade, but Stanadars would stay in their villages permanently.


Pukhtoon:
This race is belonging to Yousafzai tribe. Though, there are some Mandan, Swati and Shalmani too, but their number is very little. The majority of the population of Swat is Yousafzai.
This tribe is further subdivided into many offshoots, and each branch is called by its nearer forefathers' name, as the children of Usman are Usmankhail, and from Janakay is Jankikhail, and so on.


Kohistani:
Kohistani appear to be the indigenous population of Swat. When Mahmood conquered Swat, he had no time to explore the cone, and corners of Swat, so, the mountain-enclosed valleys were not invaded. Islam spread, slowly and gradually, in these areas. These people are now called as Kohistani.
Kohistani can also be divided into many tribes. The population of both Abasin Kohistan and Kohistan-e-Swat has many offshoots.


Gujar:
In recognition of profession Gujars are of two types:
Proper Gujars, who keep buffaloes and cows.
Ajar, who are also Gujar but keep sheep and goats.
They are called Ajars, because they are seasonal migrators.
This division occurs for their professions, both are the same race otherwise. However, the chief tribe of Gujars is Kattaan, and that of Ajars is Balaisar.

Now all of these races have become an integral part of Yousafzai. 



Languages:

Pukhto (Pashto) is the main language spoken, and known, everywhere in Swat. Besides this, there are three other languages too: Kohistani Language spoken in Abasin Kohistan, Kohistani Language spoken in Kohistan-e-Swat, and Gujro (spoken by Ajars, and Gujars). Gujro is a language like Punjabi mixed with Pukhto.


Religion:

All of the residents of Swat are strictly devoted to Islam. A Swati can tolerate the worst challenge to his life, but cannot bear a challenge to Islam. To speak against Islam in the presence of a Swati, is a call-for-death. Though, they do not offer their prayers regularly, but they are very punctual to keep fasts. They end terms with, and, if possible, beat, a so-called Muslim who does not keep fast.
Due to the lack of religious knowledge, they are superstitious, and have assumed some customs as parts of the religion. But they are far better in belief than the other parts of Pakistan. It is hopped that they will be reformed within a short period, because the torches of knowledge and the beacons of education are seen in the new generation. The education, will, certainly refine their ways and beliefs and happiness and prosperity will prevail in the society.

Firstly in Swati Society, Talaq (Divorce) is regarded as the most mean commitment. So, the rate of divorce is very low here. A man who divorces his wife is contemptible one. There is no worst abuse in Swat, than to call someone "Talaqi" - A man who has dovorced his wife.
Secondly, though the landscape and other natural environment of Swat is romantic, but love marriage is out of the etiquette of Swati Society. The people are very relifious and live in Pardah (veil). So, boys and girls are not disturbed by love. The boys are so shameful that on the days of marriages, the poor shying bridegrooms leave homes and come back at midnight so that no one may see them. Some twenty years earlier the would come to their homes at least one week later, as they had been married.
Thirdly, dance is enjoyed too much in other societies and is regarded as their cultural trait, but Swati people hate dance. The professional dancers and musicians are thought to be the lowest and meanest creatures of the society. However, the amateur musicians are exempted. 


Literature in Swat Through Years.


The beautiful valley of Swat has a unique place in the fields of education and literature. It has produced great intellectuals and scholars. But in this land of amazing beauty, civilizations are forgotten.

Various religions have flourished here, and this land has seen their rise and decline. The imprints of their culture can be easily seen in archaeological sites in Swat. Some of the relics are reflective of great inclination towards knowledge. From the Kuldanees to Aryans, Greeks to Mughals and the Britishers, all have left their marks on this land of Pakhtoons. The history of Swat has thus got a shape, reflecting cultural, economic, religious and political glimpses of these nations. We can easily judge from the various aspects of their lives the position of Swat in the files of education then.

Renowned historian, late Abdul Haleem Asat Afghani, in his “Swat Da Tareekh Pa Rana Kay”, says that of all the people who came to Swat, the Kuldanees left everlasting imprints of their culture on this land. The Kuldanees maintained sway over Swat from 2500 B.C to 500 B.C. The two inscriptions found from the archeological remains of Khadokhel, which belong to the age of Dareyoosh Kabir, are kept in Lahore Museum. The inscription point out that the relics of Kuldanee culture can be traced on the outskirts of Kanju.

Swat, in the past, has been home to Buddhism. Buddhism flourished in Swat and spread to other parts of Asia from here. This great progress became possible due to personal dedication of King Ashoka to Buddhism. During his reign, Buddhism spread to Japan, Tibet, China and Bhutan. Many monasteries have been found, where monks used to live. Some historians consider Swat as the center of Ghandhara civilization. Many eminent Chinese pilgrims came to Swat, and saw the monasteries here. They mentioned in their travelogues the cultural, political, religious and economical aspects of the people of those days. There were monasteries, in which Buddhist teachers imparted education to their students.

In 40 A.D. renowned Chinese traveler, Fahyan came to Swat through Hindu Kush and according to him, the religion practiced in Swat and Buner was Buddhism at that time. In 519 A.D. another Chinese traveler, Sangyun, visited Swat via Kafiristan. He writes in his travelogue: “ Buddhism is in full swing in Swat. At night bells are rung in monasteries in such a great number that the sound echoes on the whole valley. Monasteries are situated on the bank of the river Soto (now River Swat). Swat is a fertile land, and people are, by and large, farmers”.

In 630 A.D, another famous tourist Haven Tsang came to Swat through Kabul. He writes in his travelogue: “ Buddhism is on the decline in Swat. The monasteries on the banks of River Swat have been deserted”. Haven Tsang pays tributes to the people of Swat by saying that they are good – natured and industrious. The traveler from China was Viking, who came to Swat in 752 A.D, Hebecame a monk in a monastery.

The archeological remains and the travelogues of Chinese travelers show that Padma Samnwa, the prophet of the Buddhists, was born in Swat. It is also stated that Chinese traveler, Haven Tsang, took with him, from Swat, as many religious books as could be loaded on 40 horses.

International Buddhism University has published a book Udyana (the old name of Swat). The book was written by an old Buddhist ruler, titled as “ Udtana Peta”. Thus, it becomes crystal clear that Swat was the center of learning.

After Buddhist, Hindus captured Swat. Their contribution to education and literature is worth mentioning. The inscriptions of the days of Jay Pal Dev, found from the archaeological remains at Barikot, find a mention in book The Pathans. “ The inscriptions are in Sarda alphabet, written in Sanskrit”. It shows that during the reign of Hindus Rajas, Sanskrit was the language of Swat The name of River Swat has also been mentioned in Hindu’s religious book Rig Veda.

Famous conqueror Mehmood of Ghazna attacked Swat in 1100 A.D. By defeating the Buddhist ruler Raja Gira, he propagated the teachings if Islam in the area. An inscription has been found from an old mosque. The mosque was built by Mehmood of Ghazna in Odigram, Swat. The inscription, found in 1948, is in Arabic. In this way, the existence of Arabic in old Swat can also be traced.

In 1485, the Yousafzai tribe of Pathans, under the leadership of Malik Ahmad and Shaikh Milli, came to Swat and settled here permanently. Malik Ahmad was the chief of the tribe. He was a great statesman, historian, poet and scholar. He wrote two books in Pushto “Dafter-e-Milli” and “Fatah Swat”.
Dafteri was a book of prose, which contained laws, and rules of distribution of land. This book was a guideline not only for Yousafzais but for the rest of Pushtoon also, so far as distribution of land was concerned. It is considered as masterpiece of the fourteenth century literature.

Fatah Swat was a book of poetry. It contained some very valuable information about the old history of Swat. Both these books are missing today, yet their existence has been confirmed by Major Roverti in his writings. Besides this, great poet of Pushtoons Khushal Khan Khattak has also mentioned in his poetry the “Dafter” of Shaikh Milli. He writes about this book in Swat Nama in the following words;
“There are two valuable and virtuous things (books) in Swat, one is Makhzan by Darviza and the other is Dafter by Shaikh Milli.”

In fifth century, Bayazid Ansari, called as Pir-i-Rokhan by his followers and Pir-i-Tareek by the opponents, wrote Khair-ul-Bayan. The book was in three languages namely Pushto, Arabic and Persian. One part of the book is autobiographical, while the other part is about the rules pertaining to the recitation of the holy Quran. Though this book is missing today, yet some of its pages are still available.

After Bayazid Ansari, Sayed Ali Shah Termizi (Pir Baba) and Akhund Darweza Baba started influencing the people with their religious teaching. Akhund Darweza wrote two books “Tazkera” and “Makhzan”. These two books are considered as the master pieces of Persian and Pushto literature of those days. Akhund Darweza Baba held many religious discussions with Bayazid Ansari. He opposed the teaching of Bayazid Ansari in many ways. Akhund Darweza was a religious scholar. He wrote “Makhzan” as an apology to Bayazid Ansari’s book “Khair-ul-bayan”.

In 1050 AD great poet of Pushto Khushal Khan Khattak came to Swat. During his stay in Swat, he wrote “Swat Nama” in verse. It was a great contribution to Pushto literature in Swat. “Swat Nama” contains the geographical, cultural, political and historical aspects of the Swat of those days. We can get a lot of information about Swat of those days from “Swat Nama”. In 1624 AD a book “Tawareekh Hafiz Rahamat Khani” was written. This book is the summary of the Malik Khawaja voluminous book “Twareekh-i-Afghani”. Some very basic information about the old history of Swat is contained in the book. This book was missing for a long time. Latter on the book was found in British Museum, London and was send to Pushto Academy by the Britishers on request. This book was for the first time published by Pushto Academy in 1971.

Khan Roshan Khan translated the book in Urdu, and wrote by himself its detailed foreword, in which he has given some valuable information the history of Swat.

In 1849 A.D. Sayed Akbar Shah came into power and after his demise great unrest started in Swat. In 1914, Sayed Abdul Jabbar Shah became the king of Swat. The official language of Swat was Persian in those days Sayed Abdul Jabbar was himself a great scholar, poet and historian. He wrote many books on the history of Pathans and Swat. After Sayed Abdul Jabbar Shah, Miangul Abdul Wadood became the ruler of Swat in 1917. Though he had not gotten regular education, yet he had great regard for it. During his reign, a voluminous book of history was written by Asaf Khan. This book is a blind of old and new history of Swat. This book in a way is the autobiography of Badshah Sahib. This book of Asif Khan was source of information, for the letter writes, who tried to write on the historical aspect of Swat. In order to develop Pushto language and literature, Badshah Sahib (ruler of Swat) took the revolutionary steps by making the official Pushto language of Swat. Later on, many important books were translated into Pushto include “Anwar-i-sohaili”, “Tarkeekh Farishta”, “Fatawa Wadudia” and “Mezan Sarf”.

Fatawa Wadudia, which contains two volumes, comprises maters about Sharia and other social affairs. The book is written in ordinary language. Both the volumes contain 1180 pages, which were a guideline for every Qazi, in state times.

Mezanul Sarf was published in Persian. It is very useful book for the students of religious scholar the rule of Swat published all these books on government costs and were distributed free of cost among the masses.

In 1949 Badshah Sahib was succeeded by his son, Miangul Abdul Haq Jehanzeb was an educated person. He spread a network of schools in Swat. He maintained Pushto as the official language of the state. In the connection, the late director of Pushto Academy, Maulana Abdul Qadir, through his correspondence with Wali of Swat, inspired him to do due service to Pushto and the Wali of Swat took great interest in the development of Pushto. On coronation ceremony of the Wali of Swat, “Mushairas” used to be held. Eminent poets from Swat as well as other area participated in these “Mushairas”. Late Fazal-ur-Rahaman Faizan, a great poet of Swat, played a pivotal role in this regard.

A scientific and literary magazine was published for the first time from Jehanzeb College in 1949. It was published in three languages, Pushto, Urdu and English. The magazine was called “Eelum” this magazine has been publishing regularly. The services rendered by Shah Yousafzai, to this magazine, are worth mentioning. Sahar Yousafzai took keen interest in the magazine, to make it an ideal one for the generations to come.
Journalism in Swat was introduced by a famous person from Mingora, Fazal Khaliq. He, for the first time, published a monthly digest in 1968 under the title “Swat Digest”. It was a digest of high standard. Thus he laid the foundation of modern journalism in Swat. A magazine was also published by the department of Family planning in1966. Department of Information also published a magazine “Riyasat-i-Swat”.

The first newspaper published from Swat was the weekly “Falak Sair” by Miangul Farosh of Qandil. Later on by Mian Sayed Umer Nasih tried his best to modevate it.

In 1989, Mian Sayed Umer Nasih published a weekly magazine under the title “Sada-i-Swat”. In the same year, Mumtaz Ahmad Buneri published “Sadae-i-Malakand” from Buner/Swat.

“Salam” the first daily from Swat was published by Sayed Umer Nasih in 1993. the newspaper on August 1994, Sayed Badar Zaman Saba launched the weekly “Malakand Times”. On August 14, 1994 Niaz Pasha Jadoon launched another daily “Shamal” from Swat.

Thus the land of Swat has produced great scholars. Hafiz Alpuri, a great Pushto poet, was one of them. He was a great religious scholar. His poetry no doubt , is masterpiece in Pushto literature. He is as popular as Rahman Baba and Khushal Khan Khattak among Pushtoons.

For the promotion of Pushto language and literature a number of literary organizations are playing active role. These organizations are: Swat Adabi Sanga, Nangyal Pushto Adbi Tolana, Naway Tegh Adbi Tolana, Pushto Adbi Lakhkar and Markazi Islami Adbi Tolana.

Among the modern poets of Swat, the names of Fazal-ur-Rahman Faizan, Saiful Malook Siddique, Zaibsar and Sahar Yousafzai are worth mentioning. These poets and writers have contributed a lot for the promotion of Pushto literature in Swat. Mohammad Pervesh Shaheen, Sher Afzal Barikoti, Fazal Mehmood Rokhan, Rahim Shah Rahim, Fazal Rabi Rahi, Laiq Zada Laiq and Ibrahim Shabnam are also playing an important role in this regard. 




99 comments:

Anonymous said...

The full name is Hazrat Syed Ali Shah Tirmizi Chishti Ghaus Zaman Pir Khurasan Pir Baba [908 Hijri - 991 Hijri]. Due to his piousness popularity, the valley in which his mausoleum is located is called Pir Baba. This is the valley where he passed the last years of his life. His Blood lineage, which goes up to Hazarat Syedna Ali Bin Abi Talib Radi Allah Anhu.



His Mausoleum is located in the Valley of Pir Baba, Buner Swat. His mausolem has a huge tomb on top of his grave. The tomb is dark green from outside and is magnificently decorated from inside. His mausoleum is always filled with the smell of perfumes. The plaque on his grave contains the text; "Hazrat Pir Baba Allayh Rehmah Buner Swat".

URS is celebrated 24th to 26th RAJAB Islamic calendar month every year, calculated according to the Islamic year (which has 355 days). Pir Baba Born in 908 Hijri at Ghaltanabad Termiz left this materialistic world in the month of Rajab in 991 Hijri [1583 A.D.] at Buner.

Anonymous said...

I am extremely impressed with your writing skills and also with the layout on your

weblog. Is this a paid theme or did you modify it yourself?

Anyway keep up the nice

quality writing, it’s rare to see a great blog like this
one today..

Feel free to surf to my weblog ... wiki.rt74.eu
Feel free to surf my weblog ... www.spain-car-rentals.com

Anonymous said...

It’s truly a nice and useful piece of

information. I’m glad that you simply shared this helpful

info with us. Please keep us informed like this.
Thanks for sharing.

my website :: www.bernd-schmitz.net
Also visit my blog post ... medical party favors

Anonymous said...

hi!,I like your writing so so much! percentage we

keep in touch more about your article

on AOL? I require an expert on this space to resolve my

problem. Maybe that is you! Taking a look forward to peer you.


my blog post Salou,
Also visit my page :: www.spainproperty.us

Anonymous said...

I do agree with all the ideas you have presented in your post.
They are really

convincing and will definitely work. Still, the posts are
very short for novices. Could you please extend them a little from next time?
Thanks for the post.

My blog post; http://www.nettyherawati.info/search/http://xination.pixnet.net/blog/post/22038339
My web-site hunter ceiling fan instructions

Anonymous said...

Somebody necessarily help to make

significantly articles I'd state. That is the very first time I

frequented your website page and so far? I surprised with the

research you made to create this actual put up incredible. Excellent process!

Stop by my web page: getfullapk.blogspot.fr
Here is my web-site ; No Gravatar

Anonymous said...

excellent issues altogether, you simply received a

emblem new reader. What might you suggest about your

put up that you simply made some days in the past? Any

positive?

My blog ... http://emba.nju.edu.cn:8080/
Also visit my web-site spinone ut

Anonymous said...

Hello! I just wanted to ask if you ever have any trouble with hackers?


My last blog (wordpress) was hacked and I ended up losing many months
of hard work due

to no data backup. Do you have any solutions to stop hackers?


my website: etourismbook.com
Here is my web-site : Murcia

Anonymous said...

Thanks for another fantastic post. Where else could

anybody get that type of information in such an ideal way of writing?
I've a

presentation next week, and I am on the look for such info.

Here is my site - Guamsustainableag.Org
Also visit my blog post ... 4 hour body workout template

Anonymous said...

Thanks a lot for sharing this with all people you actually recognize what you are talking about!
Bookmarked. Please

additionally seek advice from my website =).
We

will have a link change

arrangement between us!

Feel free to visit my web site; gladyssuarez.com
Also see my page > teaching english spain forum Malaga

Anonymous said...

I have been surfing online more than 3 hours today, yet
I never found any interesting article

like yours. It is pretty worth enough for me. In my opinion, if all website owners and bloggers made good content as you did, the internet
will be a

lot more useful than ever before.

Have a look at my web blog ... http://comerciodeviveres.blogspot.ru/2009/03/grupo-galores-invierte-30-millones-en.html
Also visit my web blog holiday villas to rent costa blanca

Anonymous said...

An interesting dialogue is price comment. I feel that you should write extra on
this

subject, it won't be a taboo subject but generally persons are not enough to talk on such topics. To the next. Cheers

my web-site :: topseobacklinks.com
Also visit my webpage ; british expat forums spain Pucol

Anonymous said...

I do agree with all of the ideas you've presented in your post. They are very

convincing and will certainly work. Still, the posts are very short for newbies. Could you please extend them a bit from next time? Thanks for the post.

Also visit my web-site: http://www.addeals.com.au/
Also see my page :: 2011 nfl draft schedule times

Anonymous said...

I love your blog.. very nice colors & theme. Did you make this website yourself or did you

hire someone to do it for you? Plz respond as I'm looking to create my own blog and

would like to find out where u got this from. kudos

Here is my weblog 2011 world series cardinals memorabilia
my page - 4 channel dvr with monitor

Anonymous said...

The crux of your writing while sounding reasonable

in the beginning, did not really sit perfectly with me personally after some time.
Someplace within the paragraphs you were able to make me a believer unfortunately just
for a very short while. I however have got a problem with
your leaps in logic and

one would do nicely to fill in all those gaps. When you can accomplish that,
I will surely end up

being impressed.

my web blog - http://demo.thruzt.com
my web site: work in alaska

Anonymous said...

My developer is trying to convince me to move to .net from PHP.

I have always disliked the

idea because of the costs. But he's tryiong none the less. I've
been using WordPress on a variety of websites for about a year
and am worried about

switching to another platform. I have heard great things about blogengine.
net. Is

there a way I can transfer all my wordpress
posts into it? Any help would be really appreciated!


Have a look at my website; http://www.wiki.anti-atom-aktuell.de/
My web page - car shipping sydney

Anonymous said...

Its like you read my mind! You appear to know a lot about this, like
you wrote the book in it or

something. I think that you could do with a few pics to drive the message
home a bit, but

instead of that, this is great blog. An excellent read.
I will certainly be back.

Feel free to surf to my blog :: http://www.cisionnewsroom.se/2012/04/18/guldaggsvinnarna-2012/guldagget-guldskrift/
Also visit my blog post :: apartment for sale Alicante

Anonymous said...

Hi! Do you use Twitter? I'd like to follow you if that would be

ok. I'm definitely enjoying your blog and look
forward to new updates.

My webpage; first choice rentals spain
Also visit my web site ; cordoba spain bullfighting museum

Anonymous said...

It is the best time to make some plans for the long run

and it's time to be happy. I have learn this put up and if I may I wish to recommend you few attention-

grabbing things or suggestions. Perhaps you could write subsequent articles

relating to this article. I wish to read even more

issues about it!

Take a look at my page ... intra.vasemmisto.org
Also see my web page - apartments to rent in Murcia

Anonymous said...

I truly appreciate this post. I’ve been looking everywhere for this!
Thank goodness I found it

on Bing. You've made my day! Thanks again

Feel free to surf to my blog ... livepark.pro
Here is my web site :: Cheap

Anonymous said...

I have been surfing online more than three
hours today, yet I never found any interesting article

like yours. It is pretty worth enough for me. Personally, if
all webmasters and bloggers made good content as you did, the internet will be a

lot more useful than ever before.

My web page whysolame.blogspot.ru
My web page Alicante properties for sale

Anonymous said...

I do enjoy the manner in which you have framed this difficulty and it
does give us some fodder for thought. On the other hand, coming
from what I

have experienced, I just

wish as the feedback pile on that men and women remain

on issue and in no way get started upon a soap box of some other news of the day.
Anyway, thank you for this

exceptional piece and even though I do not agree with it in totality,
I regard

your point of view.

Take a look at my webpage 3 major branches of government in the philippines
My homepage ... 4 star hotels in barcelona with pool

Anonymous said...

Hello my family member! I want to say that this post is awesome,

nice written and include approximately all important
infos. I would

like to look more posts like this .

my web page canadianhealthcareblog.blogspot.fr
my web page: Playa Blanca

Anonymous said...

You made some first rate points there. I seemed on the web for the problem and found most individuals
will

go along with with your website.

Feel free to visit my web blog www.naileen.co.kr
Here is my website ; home solar powered panel

Anonymous said...

Right now it sounds like Drupal is the top blogging platform
available right now. (from what I've read) Is that

what you are using on your blog?

my homepage; thebodynaturally.blogspot.fr
My website - de haan hotels

Anonymous said...

My coder is trying to convince me to move to .net from PHP.
I have always disliked the

idea because of the expenses. But he's tryiong none the less. I've
been using Movable-type on a variety of websites for about a year and am worried about

switching to another platform. I have heard good things about blogengine.

net. Is

there a way I can import all my wordpress content into it?
Any kind of help would be

greatly appreciated!

my web page ... www.inrated.com
my web site - property for sale in Spain Albox

Anonymous said...

Have you ever considered about including a little bit more than just your articles?

I mean, what you say

is fundamental and everything. Nevertheless think about
if you added some great photos or video clips to give your posts more,

"pop"! Your content is excellent but with images and video clips, this site could


undeniably be one of the best in its field. Fantastic blog!


Also visit my webpage - http://www.crowdsourcingnetwork.it/mediawiki/index.php?title=Discussioni_utente:TerrilynCampbell85
Feel free to visit my web page :: Albox rentals

Anonymous said...

Hey! I'm at work surfing around your blog from my new iphone

4! Just wanted to say I love reading through your blog and look forward to all your

posts! Keep up the superb work!

My blog post; http://zannabi.thoth.kr/?mid=blog&document_srl=5989882
My homepage ; spain news in 2011 Madrid

Anonymous said...

Hey, you used to write magnificent, but the last few posts have

been kinda boring… I miss your super writings.
Past few posts are just a bit out of track! come on!


Also visit my weblog - social.miniplay.gr
Feel free to surf my web blog :: home equity loan investment property

Anonymous said...

F*ckin’ amazing things here. I’m very glad to see your post.
Thanks a lot

and i am looking forward to contact you. Will you kindly drop me a e-mail?


My homepage supernature.inkubus-sukkubus.co.uk
Here is my web-site spain weather graph

Anonymous said...

advertising and ***********

with Adwords. Anyway I am adding this RSS to my email and can look out

for a lot more of your respective fascinating content.
Make sure you update this again very soon..

my site :: forum2.cpmpac.org
Also see my website: Baleric Islands

Anonymous said...

Hello there, I found your blog via Google while looking for a
related topic,

your web site came up, it looks good. I've bookmarked it in my google bookmarks.

Stop by my webpage: p132p132.pixnet.net
Here is my blog ; best diet pill fast weight loss lose weight ephedra

Anonymous said...

As a Newbie, I am always browsing online for articles that can


help me. Thank you

Feel free to visit my web blog :: bookmarks.wedia.gr
my webpage > Murcia properties for sale

Anonymous said...

Thank you, I have recently been searching for information approximately this topic for a while
and yours is the best I've came

upon till now. However, what in regards to the bottom

line? Are you positive in regards to the source?

Review my web blog: http://rehmananwar.blogspot.com/2009/12/rozgar-micro-finance-bank-ltd-rmfb.html
My website > Albox properties

Anonymous said...

Good day very nice blog!! Guy .. Beautiful .. Amazing .
. I will bookmark your website and take the feeds


additionally…I'm glad to seek out so many

useful info here in the submit, we want develop more strategies in this regard, thanks for

sharing. . . . . .

my webpage - www.katzen-lexikon.de
Visit my web-site benidorm spain forum La Palma

Anonymous said...

Simply want to say your article is as astonishing.
The

clearness in your post is simply excellent and
i could assume you

are an expert on this subject. Well with your permission let
me to grab your RSS feed to keep

updated with forthcoming post. Thanks a million and please continue the

rewarding work.

Have a look at my site ... scop.at
Feel free to surf my weblog :: catfish in Spain

Anonymous said...

advertising

Feel free to visit my blog post: thecomet.com
My webpage: spain forum murcia Arboleas

Anonymous said...

I’d have to check with you here. Which is not one

thing I usually do! I take pleasure in studying a put up that can make folks think.
Also, thanks for

permitting me to comment!

Also visit my web site ... clutterfreeclassroom.blogspot.ru
my web page > Albox property

Anonymous said...

Thanks for sharing superb informations. Your website is so
cool. I

am impressed by the details that you’ve on this web site.
It reveals how nicely you

understand this subject. Bookmarked this web page,
will come back for extra articles.

You, my pal, ROCK! I found just the info I already searched everywhere


and simply could not come across. What a perfect web site.


Take a look at my homepage - http://matthieuausenegal.blogspot.co.uk/2007/06/belle-fin-de-semaine-passe.html
My site :: San Pedro Alcantara

Anonymous said...

Thanks for every other magnificent

article. The place else could anybody get that type
of information

in such a perfect manner of writing? I have a presentation
subsequent

week, and I am at the search for such information.


Also visit my blog ... http://shriganeshthavarajah.blogspot.ru
My website > Articles

Anonymous said...

I have been exploring for a little for any high quality articles or

weblog posts on this kind of house . Exploring in Yahoo I


ultimately stumbled upon this site. Reading this info So i am

satisfied to show that I've a very just right uncanny feeling I discovered exactly what I needed. I most

without a doubt will

make sure to do not omit this site and provides it a look regularly.

My homepage ... livescore11.blogspot.ru
Have a look at my homepage : real estate Spain Murcia

Anonymous said...

It's a shame you don't have a donate button! I'd without a doubt donate to

this fantastic blog! I guess for now i'll settle for

bookmarking and adding your RSS feed to my Google account.
I look forward to brand new updates and will share
this site with my Facebook group. Talk soon!

My blog post; http://wiki.skisport.ru/index.php?title=The_Sweetness_And_A_Worth_Of_A_Spain_Vacation
Feel free to visit my website - spain newspaper headlines Albox

Anonymous said...

I was very pleased to find this

internet-site.I wished to thanks to your time for this wonderful read!

! I definitely enjoying each

little little bit of it and I have you bookmarked to take a look
at new stuff you blog post.

Feel free to visit my web blog; capitanorocangol.blogspot.ru
Here is my site - http://eproc-wiki.lkpp.go.id/eproc-wiki/index.php?title=User:DeeannaMills1988

Anonymous said...

I have been reading out many of your posts and it's pretty clever stuff. I will surely bookmark your blog.

Also visit my weblog pakistan-mediagroup.blogspot.com
My page ; spain expat forum expats living spain Canet Berenger

Anonymous said...

Valuable information. Lucky me I found your website


unintentionally, and I am stunned why this accident didn't happened earlier! I bookmarked it.

My web blog topseobacklinks.com
Here is my page Costa Blanca Spain weather conditions March

Anonymous said...

You can definitely see your skills in the work you write.
The world hopes for

more passionate writers like you who aren't afraid to say how they believe. Always follow

your heart.

my weblog :: http://topseobacklinks.com
my site - www.Catralproperty.net

Anonymous said...

WONDERFUL Post.thanks for share..more wait .. …

Feel free to surf to my web page ... http://www.movilzona.es
Also see my web site :: canning and freezing recipes

Anonymous said...

Thanks for another fantastic article. Where else could


anybody get that kind of info in such an ideal way of writing?
I have a

presentation next week, and I'm on the look for such information.

Feel free to visit my web site http://www.beatmyfashion.com/blogs/user/MedaFerguson90
Review my page :: cheap cars spain hire

Anonymous said...

I loved as much as you'll receive carried out right here. The sketch is attractive, your authored

subject matter stylish. nonetheless, you command get got an nervousness

over that you wish be delivering the following. unwell unquestionably come more formerly again as exactly

the same nearly a lot often inside case you shield this hike.

Also visit my web blog http://essentialweb.asia/story.php?title=provolino-sta-guardando-il-profilo-3
Also visit my web-site ... villa for sale

Anonymous said...

Good post. I learn something more challenging on

totally different blogs everyday. It'll at all times be stimulating to read content from different

writers and follow somewhat

something from their store. I’d favor to use some with the

content material on my blog whether or not you don’t mind. Natually I’ll offer you a hyperlink on your web blog. Thanks for sharing.

my weblog ... http://www.seminare-edv.de
Also visit my homepage ; spain weather outlook

Anonymous said...

Do you have a spam issue on this site; I also am a blogger, and I was
curious about your situation; we have created some nice practices and we

are looking to swap methods with other folks, please shoot me an e-mail if interested.



Feel free to visit my web-site ... web.firstkoreanchurch.org
Check out my site ... Alicante Spain apartments for sale

Anonymous said...

What i do not realize is actually how you are not really much more
well-liked than

you may be right now. You are so intelligent. You realize therefore

significantly relating to this subject, made me personally consider it from numerous
varied angles. Its like women and men aren't fascinated unless it’s one thing to

do with Lady gaga! Your own stuffs excellent. Always maintain it up!

Feel free to surf to my blog post - scorpimen.eu
my web page: freesat in spain freesat forums Alicante

Anonymous said...

I like what you guys are usually up too. Such clever work and exposure!
Keep up the excellent works guys I've included you guys to my

personal blogroll.
Also visit my web-site - www.bellhs.net

Anonymous said...

This website online can be a walk-

via for the entire data you wanted about this and didn’t know who to ask.
Glimpse here, and you’ll definitely uncover it.1
There may be noticeably a bundle to know about this. I assume you made


certain good factors in options also.
Feel free to visit my web page africanamericansupersite.com

Anonymous said...

Its like you read my mind! You appear to know a lot about this, like you wrote the book
in it or

something. I think that you could do with a few pics to drive the message
home a bit, but

other than that, this is magnificent blog. A great read.
I will certainly be back.
Feel free to visit my blog post http://csl.unac.edu.pe

Anonymous said...

Needed to create you that very little observation in order to thank you so

much once again with your pleasing concepts

you've contributed above. It has been really extremely generous with you to deliver freely all many people could have advertised as an ebook to make some dough for themselves, especially seeing that you might have

tried it if you desired. The good tips

as well acted to be a fantastic way to fully grasp some people have similar passion really like my own to find

out a lot more around this issue.

I think there are a lot more

enjoyable instances in the future for people who browse through your

site.
Feel free to surf my homepage :: www.ceconsult.hu

Anonymous said...

you are in point of fact a good webmaster.

The website loading speed is amazing. It sort of feels that you

are doing any distinctive trick. Also, The contents are

masterwork. you have performed a wonderful task on this topic!
Also see my web site - www.seocome.com

Anonymous said...

Good website! I really love how it is simple on my eyes and the data are well written.


I am wondering how I could be notified whenever a new post has
been made. I've subscribed

to your feed which must do the trick! Have a nice day!
Review my page ; blogspot.ru

Anonymous said...

There are actually a number of details like that to take into consideration.
That could

be a great level to bring up. I provide the thoughts above as

basic inspiration however clearly there are questions like the one you

convey up where an important thing

will probably be working in trustworthy good faith.
I

don?t know if greatest practices have emerged around issues like
that, but

I'm sure that your job is clearly recognized as a good game. Both boys

and girls really feel the impact of only a moment’s

pleasure, for the remainder of their lives.
Feel free to visit my homepage ; bloj.net

Anonymous said...

There are actually a number of details like that to
take into consideration. That could

be a great level to bring up. I provide the thoughts
above as

basic inspiration however clearly there are questions like the one you

convey up where an important thing

will probably be working in trustworthy good faith. I

don?t know if greatest practices have emerged around issues like that, but

I'm sure that your job is clearly recognized as a good game. Both boys

and girls really feel the impact of only a moment’s

pleasure, for the remainder of their lives.
My web site - bloj.net

Anonymous said...

Very nice article and straight to the point. I don't know if this is

in fact the best place to ask but do you guys have any thoughts on where

to hire some professional writers? Thx :)
My web page :: pixnet.net

Anonymous said...

Very efficiently written story. It will be supportive to everyone who employess it,
including me.

Keep up the good work - can'r wait to read more posts.
My site : www.talismanscholarship.co.uk

Anonymous said...

Good write-up, I’m regular visitor of one’s site, maintain up the

nice operate, and It is going to be a regular visitor for a long time.
My web site - jenny0728.pixnet.net

Anonymous said...

WONDERFUL Post.thanks for share..more wait .
. …
Also visit my blog post - adrienegb.lovelyish.com

Anonymous said...

Hello very cool web site!! Man ..

Excellent .. Wonderful .. I will bookmark your site
and take the feeds

also…I am happy to seek out a lot of

useful info here in the publish, we want develop extra techniques in this regard, thank you for

sharing. . . . . .
My page : Wiki.twce.org.tw

Anonymous said...

This design is spectacular! You most certainly know how to

keep a reader amused. Between your wit and your videos, I was almost moved to start my
own blog (well,

almost...HaHa!) Excellent job. I really enjoyed what you had to
say, and more than

that, how you presented it. Too cool!
Take a look at my web site : stsroundtable.com

Anonymous said...

I am extremely impressed along with your writing

abilities as neatly as with the format to your

blog. Is that this a paid subject or did you customize it

yourself? Anyway keep up the nice high quality writing, it’s

uncommon to peer a great weblog like this one these days.
.
Visit my web-site ; http://wikivendetta.altervista.org/php5/index.php?title=Discussioni_utente:DeborahMartinez85

Anonymous said...

I truly appreciate this post. I have been looking all over for this!
Thank goodness I found it

on Bing. You've made my day! Thanks again
My weblog :: http://bminl.cafe24.com/wiki/index.php?title=User:DiaSullivan1983

Anonymous said...

With havin so much written content do you ever run into any problems of plagorism


or copyright violation? My blog has a lot of exclusive content

I've either authored myself or outsourced but it appears a lot of it is popping it up

all over the internet without my authorization. Do you know any techniques to help prevent content from being stolen? I'd really appreciate
it.
Feel free to visit my blog ... Korthalsaltes.Blogspot.Co.uk

Anonymous said...

You could definitely see your enthusiasm in the work you write.
The world hopes for

even more passionate writers like you who aren't afraid to say how they believe. Always follow

your heart.

Here is my web site http://svevanet.wordpress.com/

Anonymous said...

Right now it appears like Drupal is the preferred blogging platform
available right now. (from what I've read) Is that

what you're using on your blog?
Look into my web page : http://www.sfhdc.org/index.php/member/36686

Anonymous said...

I'm usually to blogging and i actually recognize your content. The article has actually peaks my interest. I'm going to bookmark your
web site and keep checking for new information.
Also see my web site > infidelguy.com

Anonymous said...

In the great design of things you

secure an A for effort. Where exactly you actually lost me personally was
on the details. As as

the maxim goes, the devil is in the details.
.. And that could not be

more correct in this article. Having said that, let me say to you what

did work. The writing

can be really

engaging which is possibly the reason why

I am taking an effort in order to comment. I do not really make it a regular habit of


doing that. Second, despite the fact that I can


certainly see the leaps in reasoning you make, I am definitely not
convinced of just how you seem to

unite the details which make

your conclusion. For now I will subscribe to your issue but hope in the near future

you actually connect your dots better.
Also visit my web site :: sfaetc.ucsf.edu

Anonymous said...

I precisely needed to thank you so much once again. I'm not certain the

things I would've followed in the absence of the ways documented by you regarding


this theme. It was a real

distressing

difficulty in my view, however , considering the well-written tactic you dealt with the issue

forced me to jump over delight. I will be thankful for your assistance as well as believe

you find out what a

great job you have been putting in educating men and women
by way of a web site. I am sure you've never come across any of us.
my webpage > http://socialfy.Lbriones.com/

Anonymous said...

I was recommended this web site by my cousin. I am not sure whether this post is written

by him as no one else know such detailed about my trouble.
You are incredible! Thanks!
My web-site ; Seocome.com

Anonymous said...

It’s actually a cool and useful piece of information.
I’m glad that you

shared this helpful information with us. Please keep us informed
like this. Thanks for

sharing.
Feel free to surf my weblog - http://www.shiur.com

Anonymous said...

It’s actually a nice and useful piece of info. I’m
satisfied that you shared this useful information with
us. Please stay

us up to date like this. Thank you for sharing.
Feel free to surf my web page authenticlinks.com

Anonymous said...

I am extremely impressed with your writing skills as well as with the layout on your

weblog. Is this a paid theme or did you modify it yourself?

Either way keep up the nice

quality writing, it’s rare to see a great blog like this one
these days..
Also see my site - otras.org

Anonymous said...

Wonderful blog! I found it while searching on Yahoo News.
Do you have any

suggestions on how to get listed in Yahoo News?
I've been trying for a while but I never seem to get there! Cheers
Also see my website :: tina0526inhk.pixnet.net

Anonymous said...

I loved as much as you will receive carried out right here.
The sketch is tasteful, your authored

subject matter stylish. nonetheless, you command get
got an edginess

over that you wish be delivering the following. unwell unquestionably come further formerly again since exactly

the same nearly a lot often inside case you shield this hike.
My weblog ; gloriouslinks.com

Anonymous said...

It’s actually a nice and helpful piece of info.
I am glad that you

shared this helpful info with us. Please keep us informed like this.
Thanks for

sharing.
My site - hatopedia.subuya.com

Anonymous said...

Well I sincerely enjoyed reading it. This

subject procured by you is very helpful for good planning.
Also visit my blog post ; authenticlinks.com

Anonymous said...

Well I sincerely enjoyed reading it. This

subject procured by you is very helpful for good planning.
Also see my site: authenticlinks.com

Anonymous said...

Nice post. I used to be checking constantly this blog and I am

impressed! Extremely helpful info specially the

closing section :) I care for such

information much. I was looking for this certain information

for a long time. Thanks and best of luck.
My website - blogspot.fr

Anonymous said...

Thanks a bunch for sharing this with all of us you actually know what you're talking about!

Bookmarked. Please also visit my site =). We could have a link exchange contract between us!
Also visit my weblog - www.adfty.net

Anonymous said...

Fantastic website. Plenty of helpful

info here. I’m sending it to a few pals ans also

sharing in delicious. And obviously, thank you in your

effort!
Also see my site :: www.socialesvipteen.com

Anonymous said...

I intended to create you a very small word just to say thank you again
for your personal precious knowledge

you've discussed in this

article. This has been so shockingly generous with people like you to make publicly all that a lot of folks could

possibly have marketed as an e book in making some cash for themselves, principally seeing that you could possibly have

tried it in case you desired. The good ideas

also worked to be a easy way to be aware that other individuals have a similar zeal really like my own to realize a

little more on the topic of this condition.

I think there are lots of more

enjoyable occasions up front for individuals who looked over your website.

My web site: http://www.gamestribune.com/groups/solar-energy-in-spain

Anonymous said...

Well I truly liked reading it. This

subject provided by you is very constructive for good planning.


Feel free to visit my web page; missionfinder.org

Anonymous said...

There is noticeably a lot to

realize about this. I suppose you made some nice points in

features also.

Look into my site: http://www.seolinkads.com/technology/userlorileegreen74-illfonic

Anonymous said...

Thanks for another informative website. Where else could I get that kind of

information written in such a perfect way? I have a project that I am just now
working on,

and I've been on the look out for such info.

Feel free to surf to my homepage courses.microlab.ntua.gr

Anonymous said...

Very good written post. It will be beneficial to anybody who
usess it, as well as yours truly :).

Keep up the good work - i will definitely read more posts.


my web-site; sawyouat.org

Anonymous said...

Hello, i believe that i saw you visited my site thus
i

got here to “go back the want”.I am trying to to find issues to improve my website!

I suppose its

adequate to make use of some of your ideas!!

Review my web page; gaygtime.com

Anonymous said...

Whеn I οrіginallу commented I clickeԁ the "Notify me when new comments are added" chеckbοx anԁ now eaсh timе a comment is added I get sеvеral emails ωith the samе сomment.

Is theгe any ωay уou can гemoѵe me from that servicе?
Thankѕ! rippln reviews - rippln reviews - rippln mobile

Anonymous said...

Because the admin of this website is working, no doubt very
rapidly it will be renowned, due to its quality contents.


Also visit my site - making money from home

Anonymous said...

I have been browsing online more than three hours today, yet
I never found any interesting article like yours.
It's pretty worth enough for me. In my view, if all website owners and bloggers made good content as you did, the internet will be a lot more useful than ever before.

Also visit my weblog: deep sea creatures

Anonymous said...

Download All Recent Games, Movies, Apps, Mobile Stuff and everything else
for free at http://www.rls-log.net

You can download from the following categories

Full Version Applications for Android, iOS, MAC, Windows
Full Version Games for Linux, MAC, PC, PS3, Wii, Wii U, XBOX360
and other systems
Full Movies And Cinema Movies BDRiP, Cam, DVDRiP, DVDRiP
Old, DVDSCR, HDRiP, R5, SCR, Staff Picks, Telecine, Telesync,
Workprint
Full Music Album MP3s and Music Videos Music, Albums, iTunes, MViD, Singles/EPs
Full Version Ebooks eBook Magazines

Download all you want for free at http://www.rls-log.

net

Anonymous said...

This program is intended to recover lost passwords for RAR/WinRAR archives of versions 2.
xx and 3.xx. http://www.passwordrecoveryforrar.

tk The free professional solution for recovering lost
passwords to RAR and WinRAR archives.

I'm very happy to discover this website. I need to to thank you for ones time due to this wonderful read!! I definitely liked every little bit of it and i also have you saved as a favorite to look at new information in your blog.

Anonymous said...

American males wouldn't visit other countries for love/sex for a selection of motives. The initial is if most ladies in the U.S. were not so body fat. Confident you can find men that cannot pay for to travel or are uninelligent, in order that they settle to get a body fat lady and live a boring daily life even when they say their spouse or girlfriend is "hot" however the dimension of a Ford Tundra. The 2nd is simply a minority of ladies are super scorching within the U.S. A reduced percentage of sizzling women in america, makes them go for both some muscle mass buff homos or some billionare. Among the youthful hot women, they may be sexually turned off by intelligence of any sort or sophistication.
So what ought to a man of respectable appears having a higher training do ? Go settle for some fatty ? Why should he, when he has a higher chance in possessing the existence he wants in other areas on this planet, Look in the the years he missed out in college where sizzling women haven't any
sexual interest in intelligence and use MTV as their normal of a guy.
Logically talking, it really is greater for
an educated man of decent appears to go to locations exactly where
the majority of women are
super hot and exotic such as
Jap Europe/Russia,components of Latin America,
and some parts of Asia.
So how come girls in
the usa, and their closeted homosexual male supporters lash out at their
fellow American men for experiencing existence or looking
for out a real lifestyle ? I've no problem if ladies selected a daily life they want, why cannot guys ?

Have a look at my web blog ... ways to ask girls out

mesincucisurabaya.com said...

I'm very happy to discover this website. I need to to thank you for ones time due to this wonderful read!! I definitely liked every little bit of it and i also have you saved as a favorite to look at new information in your blog.